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Imperial Bush
A closer look at the Bush record -- from the war in Iraq to the war on the environment

2004 Campaign
Will Americans take the exit ramp off the Bush presidency in November?

Behind Colin Powell's Legend
Colin Powell's sterling reputation in Washington hides his life-long role as water-carrier for conservative ideologues.

The 2000 Campaign
Recounting the controversial presidential campaign

Media Crisis
Is the national media a danger to democracy?

The Clinton Scandals
The story behind President Clinton's impeachment

Nazi Echo
Pinochet & Other Characters

The Dark Side of Rev. Moon
Rev. Sun Myung Moon and American politics

Contra Crack
Contra drug stories uncovered

Lost History
How the American historical record has been tainted by lies and cover-ups

The October Surprise "X-Files"
The 1980 October Surprise scandal exposed

From free trade to the Kosovo crisis

Other Investigative Stories


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'October Surprise' Notes on Joseph Reed

Text of notes taken by FBI Agent Harry Penich on serving House subpoena to Joseph V. Reed:

Joseph V. Reed service of subpoena on [illegible]

I had the occasion to encounter and [sic] individual who raised your name immediately after being served with a subpoena. He did it in such a way as to lead a reasonable person to believe he had influence w/you. The man's remarks were both inappropriate and improper.

His name was Joseph Verner Reed.

I'm calling to let you know this for 2 reasons:

1.     he used your name while lashing out at lawful legal process

2.     I have to [illegible]. I am not going to be his whipping boy because he can't manipulate the system.

We have been attempting to interview Reed for close to 5 months. Numerous telephone calls were placed to him. He failed to answer any of them. I conservatively place the number over 10.

Last Tuesday, while I was in NY, I was asked by our associate counsel to attempt another contact. I was told by Reed's adm. ass't he would have no personal contact w/ the "October Surprise" Congressional Task Force. The ass't provided a series of reasons which the "October Surprise" atty's considered invalid. I was specifically instructed to serve a subpoena on him, but not do it @ the U.N.

I served him on Wednesday evening when he came home from work.  He was surprised and absolutely livid at being served at home.  His response could best be characterized as lashing out.


Text of Penich's Notes on Reed's subsequent deposition: 

Joseph V. Reed                    12/18/92

deposition via telephone (able to hear answers but not questions). [Reed] read statement into the record which will be taken and made a part of the deposition.

Under Sec. Public Affairs

Chief of Protocol for USA

U.N. Positions [?]

Ambassador to Morocco Autumn 1981

Chase Manhattan Bank 1963-1981

VP & ass't to Chairman David Rockefeller

World Bank

Friendship from childhood w/ ____

acquaintanceship with Mr. Casey for years

Shah died in 1979

The Chairman of the bank of which he was affiliated assisted the Shah in his relocation in 1979

Visited Shah in Bahamas & Mexico

Shah appeared to be in serious decline in Mexico

(lots of squinting, eye brow raising and straining in facial expressions)

unable to answer questions which apparently called for info in the possession of Rockefeller, Kissinger, & [illegible]

"you would have to ask them"

rec'd t/c from Reagan in spring of 1981 re. Morocco amb.

had no conversation with Casey re. nomination of amb. to Morocco. 

Recalls no contact w/ Casey in 1980.


Confirmed by Senate 1981

Went to Langley while Casey was Director but did so to brief appropriate people in charge of the Morocco desk

Would have stopped to see Casey to pay respect

Cogan was a senior official @ CIA responsible for Morocco at the time

does not specifically know what "October Surprise" refers to

For the latest and most detailed account of the "October Surprise" mystery, see Robert Parry's book, Secrecy & Privilege: Rise of the Bush Dynasty from Watergate to Iraq. For the original story about Reed's role, see's "Follow the Money."

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